It was invented by Poseidon Energy sometime before the discovery of MaSMA and subsequent invention of the microfusion reactor. This sole innovation allowed Poseidon Energy to remain the Energy business Juggernaut it had been during the days of oil. After the war, it played a major impact in the technology deployed by the Enclave by allowing them to liberate fuel in the most remote and desolate locales.
Some speculate it, along with MaSMA, is how they have been able to maintain their aging vertibird fleet so easily and for so long.
Poseidon Energy took the production capabilities of the filters with them, leaving would-be scavengers empty-handed in the years following the United States's destruction.
If one is fortunate enough to find one, wealthy enough to purchase one, or opportunistic enough to find and make a deal with the Enclave (should they exist nearby), they will have unrivaled longevity and range with any vehicle under their employ as these filters are capable of lasting centuries without losing potency.